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City of Chattanooga

  •   State: 
    Hamilton County
      County FIPS: 
    35°2′44″N 85°16′2″W
      Area total: 
    150.08 sq mi
      Area land: 
    142.35 sq mi (368.69 km²)
      Area water: 
    7.73 sq mi (20.01 km²)
    676 ft (206 m)
    1839; Incorporated 1839
  •   Latitude: 
      Dman name cbsa: 
    Chattanooga, TN-GA
    Eastern Standard Time (EST) UTC-5:00; Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) UTC-4:00
      ZIP codes: 

    Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee, United States

  •   Population: 
      Population density: 
    1,272.19 residents per square mile of area (491.20/km²)
      Household income: 
      Unemployment rate: 
  •   Sales taxes: 

Chattanooga (CHAT--NOO-g) is a city in and the county seat of Hamilton County, Tennessee, United States. Located along the Tennessee River bordering Georgia, it also extends into Marion County on its western end. With a population of 181,099 in 2020, it is Tennessee's fourth-largest city and one of the two principal cities of East Tennessee, along with Knoxville. Its official nickname is the "Scenic City", alluding to the surrounding mountains, ridges, and valleys. It is 118 miles (190 km) northwest of Atlanta, Georgia, 112 miles (180 km) southwest of Knoxville, Tennessee, 134 miles (216 km) southeast of Nashville, Tennessee. 102 miles (164 km) east-northeast of Huntsville, Alabama, and 147 miles (237 km) northeast of Birmingham, Alabama. The first inhabitants of the Chattanooga area were Native Americans. Sites dating back to the Upper Paleolithic period (c. 10,000 BCE) show continuous human occupation through the Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian/Muskogean/Yuchi (9001714 CE), and Cherokee (1776-1838) periods. The Chickamauga Mound near the mouth of the Chickamauge Creek is the oldest (c. 750 CE) remaining visible art in Chattanooga. In 1838, the U.S. government forced the Cherokees to relocate to the area designated as Indian Territory. Their journey west became known as the "Trail of Tears" for their exile and fatalities along the way.


Chattanooga is the primary city name, but also East Ridge are acceptable city names or spellings. The official name is City of Chattanooga. The first inhabitants of the Chattanooga area were Native Americans. In 1838, the U.S. government forced the Cherokees, along with other Native Americans, to relocate to the area designated as Indian Territory, in what is now the state of Oklahoma. The city grew quickly, initially benefiting from a location well-suited for river commerce. With the arrival of the railroad in 1850, Chattanooga became a boom town. During the American Civil War, Chattanooga was a center of battle. The largest flood in Chattanooga's history occurred in 1867, before the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) system was created in 1933 by Congress. Without the completion of the reservoir system, the highest flood occurred in 1973, when the flood crested at 37 feet (11.11 m) Without regulation, the flood would have inundated the city at 52.4 feet (16.0 m) The city was a major priority in the design of the TVA reservoir system and remains a major operating priority in 21st century. Chattanooga was the only criminal trial in its history that ruled that Hamilton County Sheriff Joseph H. Shipp had violated Ed Johnson's civil rights when he allowed a mob to enter the Hamilton County jail and lynch Johnson on the Walchnut Street Bridge. In December 1906, Chattanooga in national headlines as the United States Supreme Court, as the Supreme Court ruled in Shipp v Shipp, in the case of Ed Johnson v. Hamilton County. The first part of the name "Chattanooga" derives from the Muskogean word cvto /cht/ 'rock' The latter may be derived from a regional suffix -nuga meaning dwelling or dwelling place.


Chattanooga is located in East Tennessee. The Tennessee River and surrounding mountains are the most prominent natural features in and around the city. The city is home to the Tennessee Aquarium, the longest continuously operating hotel in the Southeastern U.S., and several historic buildings. Chattanooga has a humid climate (Köppen "Cfa") and a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) The city has won three national awards for outstanding "livability", and nine Gunther Blue Ribbon Awards for excellence in housing and consolidated planning. In December 2009, Chattanooga was ranked 8th out of 100 metro areas for the best "Bang For Your Buck" city.


As of the 2020 U.S. census, there were 181,099 people, 79,565 households, and 41,059 families residing in the city. Non-Hispanic Whites were 55.9% of the population in 2010, down from 67.3% in 1980. The Southern Baptist Convention was the largest denomination with 225 congregations and 122,300 members. The United Methodist Church with 31,500 members and 83 churches was the third-largest group of Christians identified as non-denominational congregations. The fourth-largest organized denomination was the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) with 82 churches and 17,900 members. Islam has 2,200 adherents in Chattanooga.Chattanooga's Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Hamilton, Marion, and Sequatchie counties in Tennessee and Catoosa, Dade, and Walker counties in Georgia, grew from 476,531 people, as of the 2000 census, to 529,222 people,as of the 2010 census, an 11% increase during the 2000s. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was2.94. The median income for a household in theCity was $35,817, and the median income. for a family was $43,314. The per capita income for the city was $23,756. About 14% of families and 16.5% of. the population were below the poverty line, including 27% of those under age 18 and 13.8%.


Chattanooga's economy includes a diversified and growing mix of manufacturing and service industries. The city is served by several incubators, notably Co.Lab, the Business Development Center, and Lamp Post Group. The William Wrigley Jr. Company has a prominent presence in Chattanooga, the sole site of production of Altoids breath mint products since 2005. Chattanooga went from zero investable capital in 2009 to over $50 million in 2014.Electric power for most of the city and surrounding area is provided by the city-run Electric Power Board (EPB). EPB also provides high-speed Internet service, TV, and telephone service to business and residential customers throughout Hamilton County, as well as parts of Bledsoe County, Bradley County, Catoosa County, Dade County, Marion County, Rhea County, and Walker County via the nation's largest fiber optic system. TVA operates the nearby Sequoyah Power Plant and the Raccoon Mountain Nuclear Plant, all of which provide electricity to the greater Chattanooga area. Natural gas and water are provided by privately run Chattanooga-American Water Company, which was sold in a public offering in 2007. Former Mayor Jon Kinsey's attempts to have the city buy control of Tennessee American Water Company were defeated in court court in 2009. Chattanooga Fiber Optics is the dominant cable and internet service provider for the most incumbent city areas of Chattanooga and most of its surrounding counties. The Chattanooga Bakery, the world's first Coca-Cola bottling plant, Coker Tire, U.S. Xpress Inc., Covenant Logistics, Double Cola, CraftWorks Restaurants & Breweries, Miller & Martin, PepsiCo, Reliance Partners, Republic Parking System, Rock/Creek, Tricycle Inc., and Unum.

Culture and tourism

Chattanooga has a wide range of performing arts in different venues. The city is home to the Tennessee Aquarium, caverns, and new waterfront attractions along and across the Tennessee River. Chattanooga hosts several writing conferences, including the Conference on Southern Literature and the Festival of Writers. The Tennessee Riverwalk, an approximately 13-mile-long (21 km) trail running alongside the river, is another attraction for both tourists and residents alike. The Lookout Mountain Incline Railway is a steep funicular railway that rises from the St. Elmo Historic District to the top of the mountain, where passengers can visit the National Park Service's Point Park and the Battles for Chattanooga Museum. The Chattanooga Zoo at Warner Park is at 301 North Holtzclaw Avenue, a short distance from the downtown area. In May 2017, the Zoo broke ground to expand the Corcovado Jungle exhibit adding six new outdoor and six new indoor exhibits to house small South American monkeys and mammals in June.Near Chattanooga, the Raccoon Mountain Arboretum boasts a number of outdoor and family opportunities. The Ocoee River, host to an annual River Festival, features rafting, kayaking, and kayaking events. Just outside Chattanooga is the Lake Winnepeskauk amusement park, which features a well-known rafting and kayak lake. The Chattanoogans are known for their love of music and the Chattanooga Symphony and Opera, which became the first merged symphony and opera company in the United States in 1985.


Chattanooga has a large, growing, and diversified sports scene for a city of its size. It is home to college sports, minor league baseball, semi-professional teams, professional cycling exemplified by the Volkswagen USA Cycling Professional Road & Time Trial National Championships, the Ironman Triathlon, and a large nationally renowned regatta the first weekend of November. The city was the home of the NCAA Division I Football Championship game, which was held at Finley Stadium in Chattanooga, from 1997 to 2009. The Chattanooga Lookouts, a Class AA Double-A South baseball team affiliated with the Cincinnati Reds, play at the riverfront AT&T Field. Chattanooga FC played in the National Premier Soccer League from 2009 to 2019, but is moved to an unsanctioned professional league (NISA) in 2020. There is also a men's Old Boys team, a Chattanooga women's rugby team, as well as collegiate men's and women's teams representing the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. The Head of the Hooch rowing regatta takes place along the Tennessee River in downtown Chattanooga. With nearly 1,965 boats in 2011 and nearly 2,000 boats in 2012, this competition ranks as the 2nd largest regatta in the United States. There are multiple local rowing clubs, such as UNC Men's Crew, Vanderbilt University Crew, James Madison University Crew Club, Newport Rowing Club, and Chattanooga Women's Crew Club. The Tennessee Crush and the Chattanooga Steam are semi-pro football teams.

Media and communications

Chattanooga is served by numerous local, regional, and national media outlets which reach approximately one million people. The Chattanooga Times Free Press is the area's only daily newspaper, published every morning. Enigma is a free monthly pop culture and entertainment magazine. is a local news website offering "quality daily content focusing on local business, politics, and entertainment in the Chattanooga area" NOOGAtoday's primary product is its daily email newsletter, but it also publishes content on its social media accounts and website. The city's television stations include: WRCB channel 3, NBC affiliate (DT 13 / cable 4) WTVC channel 9, independent (formerly UPN) (silent) (DT 9 / cable 10) WNGH channel 18, CBS affiliate (DT 8 / cable 13) WELF channel 23 (DT 28 / cable 9) WTCI channel 45 (DT 35 / cable 5) WFLI-TV channel 53, The CW/MyNetworkTV affiliate (Formerly UPN and The WB) (DT 23 / cable 6) WDSI channel 61 (DT 14 / cable 11) This TV affiliate is a PBS member affiliate (cable 295) WCLI channel 53 (DT 12 / cable 8) WGTC channel 12 (DT 11 / cable 7) WNTN channel 45, PBS member affiliates (DT 10 / cable 3) and WGTN channel 46 (DT 7 / cable 2).

Law and government

Chattanooga operates under a strong mayor system, which changed from a commission form of government with members voted at-large. The current mayor is Tim Kelly, who was elected in April 2021. The Chattanooga City Council has nine members, of whom four are African American. The city's legislative branch is represented by members from nine districts, elected from single-member districts in partisan elections. Chattanooga is the location of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Tennessee's Southern Division, which is housed in the Joel W. Solomon Federal Courthouse. The first seven black officers in 1948, Thaddeus Arnold, Singer Askins, W.B. Baulridge, C.E. Black, Morris Glenn, Arthur Heard, and Thomas Patterson, were initially restricted to walking beats in black neighborhoods. In 1960, black police officers were authorized to patrol all neighborhoods and arrest white citizens. In the Tennessee Senate, Chattanooga is divided between Districts 10 and 11 with Todd Gardenhire and Bo Watson representing each district respectively. The U.S. House of Representatives is represented in the 3rd District by Chuck Fleischmann (R) and Bill Hagerty (R), who has district offices in Chattanooga. The Tennessee Supreme Court is based in Chattanooga and has jurisdiction over Bledsoe, Bradley, Hamilton, Marion, McMinn, Meigs, Polk, Rhea, and Sequatchie counties. The county seat of Hamilton County is home to Chattanooga's City Courts and Hamilton County's Courts.


Most of Chattanooga's primary and secondary education is funded by the government. The public schools in Chattanooga, as well as Hamilton County, have fallen under the purview of the Hamilton County Schools since 1997. The city is home to several well-known private and parochial secondary schools, including Baylor School, Boyd-Buchanan School, Chattanooga Christian School, Girls Preparatory School, McCallie School, and Notre Dame High School. Chattanooga is also home to a branch of the University of Tennessee College of Medicine, which provides medical education to third- and fourth-year medical students, residents, and other medical professionals in southeast Tennessee. A wide variety of higher education institutions can be found in Chattanooga and nearby. Chattanooga State Community College is a two-year community college with a total undergraduate enrollment of roughly 8150 students in 2018. Southern Adventist University is located in the suburb of Collegedale, Tennessee, and enrolls roughly 3,000 students. Richmont Graduate University is a Christian graduate school located in Chattanooga with a CACREP accredited clinical mental health counseling program. Covenant College, a private liberal arts college operated by the Presbyterian Church in America, is Located in the nearby suburb of Lookout Mountain, Georgia, and has a student population of about 1,000. The Chattanooga Public Library opened in 1905. Since 1976, the Chattanooga-Hamilton County Bicentennial Library system had been jointly operated by city and county governments; due to Chattanooga terminating a 1966 agreement with Hamilton County to distribute sales tax revenue equally, the city has taken over full funding responsibilities as of 2011.

Air Quality, Water Quality, Superfund Sites & UV Index

The Air Quality index is in Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee = 24.3. These Air Quality index is based on annual reports from the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The number of ozone alert days is used as an indicator of air quality, as are the amounts of seven pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, and volatile organic chemicals. The Water Quality Index is 50. A measure of the quality of an area’s water supply as rated by the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The EPA has a complex method of measuring the watershed quality, using 15 indicators such as pollutants, turbidity, sediments, and toxic discharges. The Superfund Sites Index is 10. Higher is better (100=best). Based upon the number and impact of EPA Superfund pollution sites in the county, including spending on the cleanup efforts. The UV Index in Chattanooga = 4.7 and is a measure of an area's exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. This is most often a combination of sunny weather, altitude, and latitude. The UV Index has been defined by the WHO ( and is uniform worldwide.


The most recent city population of 181,099 individuals with a median age of 39.2 age the population grows by 9.40% in Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee population since 2000 and are distributed over a density of 1,272.19 residents per square mile of area (491.20/km²). There are average 2.25 people per household in the 72,864 households with an average household income of $37,813 a year. The unemployment rate in Alabama is 9.50% of the available work force and has dropped -5.66% over the most recent 12-month period and the projected change in job supply over the next decade based on migration patterns, economic growth, and other factors will increase by 19.18%. The number of physicians in Chattanooga per 100,000 population = 333.4.


The annual rainfall in Chattanooga = 53.2 inches and the annual snowfall = 4.6 inches. The annual number of days with measurable precipitation (over .01 inch) = 121. The average number of days per year that are predominantly sunny = 207. 90 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily high temperature for the month of July and 31 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily low temperature for the month of January. The Comfort Index (higher=better) is 46, where higher values mean a more pleasant climate. The Comfort Index measure recognizes that humidity by itself isn't the problem. (Have you noticed nobody ever complains about the weather being 'cold and humid?) It's in the summertime that we notice the humidity the most, when it's hot and muggy. Our Comfort Index uses a combination of afternoon summer temperature and humidity to closely predict the effect that the humidity will have on people.

Median Home Cost

The percentage of housing units in Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee which are owned by the occupant = 49.68%. A housing unit is a house, apartment, mobile home, or room occupied as separate living quarters. The average age of homes = 39 years with median home cost = $113,360 and home appreciation of 2.22%. This is the value of the years most recent home sales data. Its important to note that this is not the average (or arithmetic mean). The median home price is the middle value when you arrange all the sales prices of homes from lowest to highest. This is a better indicator than the average, because the median is not changed as much by a few unusually high or low values. The property tax rate of $9.48 shown here is the rate per $1,000 of home value. If for simplification for example the tax rate is $14.00 and the home value is $250,000, the property tax would be $14.00 x ($250,000/1000), or $3500. This is the 'effective' tax rate.


The local school district spends $4,982 per student. There are 15.1 students for each teacher in the school, 468 students for each Librarian and 481 students for each Counselor. 5.70% of the area’s population over the age of 25 with an Associate Degree or other 2-year college degree, 14.39% with a master’s degree, Ph.D. or other advanced college degree and 7.81% with high school diplomas or high school equivalency degrees (GEDs).

  • Chattanooga's population in Hamilton County, Tennessee of 30,154 residents in 1900 has increased 6,01-fold to 181,099 residents after 120 years, according to the official 2020 census.

    Approximately 52.43% female residents and 47.57% male residents live in Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee.

    As of 2020 in Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee are married and the remaining 50.73% are single population.

  • 21.6 minutes is the average time that residents in Chattanooga require for a one-way commute to work. A long commute can have different effects on health. A Gallup poll in the US found that in terms of mental health, long haul commuters are up to 12 percent more likely to experience worry, and ten percent less likely to feel well rested. The Gallup poll also found that of people who commute 61­–90 minutes each day, a whopping one third complained of neck and back pain, compared to less than a quarter of people who only spend ten minutes getting to work.

    79.74% of the working population which commute to work alone in their car, 13.03% of the working population which commutes to work in a carpool, 1.91% of the population that commutes using mass transit, including bus, light rail, subway, and ferry. 2.02% of the population that has their home as their principal place of work.

  • Of the total residential buildings in Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee, 49.68% are owner-occupied homes, another 39.98% are rented apartments, and the remaining 10.34% are vacant.

  • The 57.29% of the population in Chattanooga, Hamilton County, Tennessee who identify themselves as belonging to a religion are distributed among the following most diverse religions.

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