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  •   State: 
    Douglas County
      County FIPS: 
    38°57′35″N 95°15′51″W
      Area total: 
    34.97 sq mi (90.57 km²)
      Area land: 
    34.14 sq mi (88.42 km²)
      Area water: 
    0.83 sq mi (2.14 km²)
    991 ft (302 m)
    1854; Incorporated February 20, 1858
  •   Latitude: 
      Dman name cbsa: 
    Lawrence, KS
    Eastern Standard Time (EST) UTC-5:00; Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) UTC-4:00
      ZIP codes: 

    Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas, United States

  •   Population: 
      Population density: 
    2,700 residents per square mile of area (1,000/km²)
      Household income: 
      Unemployment rate: 
  •   Sales taxes: 
      Income taxes: 

Lawrence is the county seat of Douglas County, Kansas, and the sixth-largest city in the state. It is in the northeastern sector of the state, astride Interstate 70, between the Kansas and Wakarusa Rivers. Lawrence was founded by the New England Emigrant Aid Company (NEEAC) and was named for Amos A. Lawrence, an abolitionist from Massachusetts, who offered financial aid and support for the settlement. Lawrence is a college town and the home to both the University of Kansas and Haskell Indian Nations University. It was central to the "Bleeding Kansas" period (1854-1861), and the site of the WakarusA War (1855) and the Sacking of Lawrence (1856) During the American Civil War it was also theSite of the Lawrence massacre (1863).Lawrence began as a center of free-state politics. Its economy diversified into many industries, including agriculture, manufacturing, and education, beginning with the founding of the Universityof Kansas in 1865. The city was founded "strictly for political reasons" having to do with slavery, which was heavily debated in the United States in the early to mid-1800s. The Kaw people, also known as the Kansa, settled the region including what is now Lawrence in the late 17th or early 18th century. A series of treaties with the U.S. government compelled the Kaw to relinquish the land to the Shawnee and their Indian Reservation, established in 1830.


The Kaw people, also known as the Kansa, settled the region including what is now Lawrence in the late 17th or early 18th century. A series of treaties with the U.S. government compelled the Kaw to relinquish the land to the Shawnee and their Indian Reservation, established in 1830. The Kansas Territory was established in May 1854. Lawrence was founded "strictly for political reasons" having to do with slavery, which was heavily debated in the United States in the early to mid-1800s. The New England Emigrant Aid Company (NEEAC) sent two settlers to claim territory along the Oregon Trail near Hogback Ridge. The two settlers likely chose this site because it was the "first desirable location where the emigrant Indians had ceded land" after assessing the territory. After assessing the land, the two emigrants scouted land near Fort Leavenworth and named the nearby city of the same name; after the city of Lawrence, the city was named after the nearby town of Lawrence. In 1854, the Kansas-Nebraska Act effectively repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and created the territories of Kansas and Nebraskawhich. Many of the first settlers in Kansas Territory would come from Missouri, bringing their penchant for slavery with them. Many slavery opponents decided to "meet the question [of slavery in Kansas] on the terms of the bill itself" by migrating to Kansas, electing antislavery legislators, and eventually banning slavery altogether.


Lawrence has 54 parks which include community and neighborhood parks, trails, cemeteries and nature preserves. The Haskell-Baker Wetlands, maintained by Haskell University and Baker University, is an extensive open space in the southern part of the city that features wetlands, native plants, hiking and biking trails, and interpretative signage about the prairie and wetland ecosystems. A new, multi-use trail system called the Lawrence Loop ("the Loop") encircles the city and, when fully completed, will create a 22-mile paved recreational trail, a green transportation network, and multiple opportunities for environmental restoration. The city lies on the southern edge of the Dissected Till Plains, bordering the Osage Plains to the south. Lawrence has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa), typically experiencing hot, humid summers and cold, dry winters. The high temperature reaches or exceeds 90 °F (32 °C) an average of 32 days a year. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 28.4 °C (2.0 °C), in January to 78.5 °F. (25.8 °F) in July. Measurable snowfall occurs anAverage of 8 days per year with 4.6 days receiving at least 1.0 inch (2-5 cm) of snow. Snow depth of at least one inch occurs an average. of 15.8 days ayear. The minimum temperature falls to or below 0°F (18°C) on an average 4.9 days a. year.


Lawrence is designated by neighborhoods. Neighborhoods closest to downtown are Old West Lawrence, North Lawrence, East Lawrence, Oread, Hancock and Pinkney. The neighborhoods west of Iowa Street are Sunset Hills, Prairie Meadows, Deerfield, and Alvamar. There are several neighborhoods listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Architectural styles represented in Lawrence's historical areas are Victorian, Gothic Revival, Tudor, Romanesque and many others. The architecture of Lawrence is greatly varied. Most buildings built before 1860 were destroyed in the Lawrence Massacre. The city's main road is Massachusetts Street, named for the New England Emigrant Aid Company's home state. North and South Carolina were consolidated into a single Carolina Street near Lawrence High School, and the names of nine states (Alaska, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington and Wyoming) were never given to streets. Just northeast of North Lawrence there once was a popular park area known as Bismarck Grove, which housed numerous fairs, picnics, and temperance meetings. The last fair was held at the Grove in 1899, and due to financial issues, the area was sold and became private property in 1900. North Lawrence was annexed to Douglas County in 1870 from southern Sarcoxie Township in Jefferson County. The largest city in the township was Jefferson, founded in 1866 just over the river from Lawrence. Jefferson was renamed North Lawrence in 1869 and it was attempted to annex the town to Lawrence proper but the motion failed. The following year, the State Legislature annexed the town.


As of the census of 2010, there were 87,643 people, 34,970 households, and 16,939 families residing in the city. The city's planning and urban development department estimates the city reached 100,000 people in early 2018. As of 2000 the median income for a household was $34,669, and the medianincome for a family was $51,545. The per capita income for the city was $19,378. About 7.3% of families and 18.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.6% of those under age 18 and 7.7% ofThose age 65 or over. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was2.93. The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females, there are 98.2 males. The gender makeup of the city is 50.2% male and 49.8% female. The population was spread out with 17.5% of residents between the ages of 18 and 24; 27.4% from 25 to 44; 18.5%. The average age of residents was 26.7 years. The racial makeup was 83.80% White, 5.09% African American, 2.93% Native American, 3.78% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.36% from other races, and 2.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.65%. The city has a population of 80,098.


As of 2020, Lawrence's unemployment rate had grown by 3.7%. Since 2019, the city has seen a rise in homelessness. In early 2021, the LJWorld reported there were over 200 homeless people seeking shelter on the banks of the Kansas River, and wooded areas near nature trails in Lawrence, and hundreds of others setting up encampments in city parks. The University of Kansas is the largest employer in the city as of 2020 with 10,116 employees, followed by Maximus (a call center), Lawrence Memorial Hospital (the city's hospital) and Hallmark Cards. In 2021, NPR reported that Lawrence and nearby Kansas City, Kansas saw a large spike in Homelessness. "We saw a 26 percent increase pretty much instantly because of all those people affected by job shortages and furloughs," said Jaysen Van Sickle, CEO of the Hope Faith Homeless Assistance Campus in Kansas City. Since then his group has seen about 6,000 new people seeking help. In Lawrence, the situation had gotten so bad the city constructed an encampment for homeless people to seek temporary shelter. The city's economy largely depends on educational institutions, namely The Universityof Kansas, which is the biggest employer in Lawrence. In 2020, there were more than 10,000 students at Lawrence's colleges and universities. There were also more than 3,000 nurses and other health care workers at Lawrence hospitals. In the city, the unemployment rate was 2.7% in 2020, and 2.9% in 2021.

Historic sites and museums

South Park is a large park in Downtown Lawrence divided by Massachusetts Street just south of the county courthouse between North Park and South Park Streets. The Watkins Museum of History is a block north of South Park and houses exhibits from Lawrence and Douglas County. Memorial Stadium and Allen Fieldhouse are on KU campus. Oak Hill Cemetery in east Lawrence was established in 1866 and was called by William Allen White the "Kansas Arlington" The cemetery features the burials of James Lane, Lucy Hobbs Taylor, Langston Hughes' grandparents, numerous veterans and many prominent Kansans. There are many historic houses related to the history of the city, many of them on the National Register of Historic Places. The Eldridge Hotel was first built in 1855 as the Free State Hotel. During the 1855 sack of Lawrence, the hotel was burned to the ground, and its ruins were purchased by Col. Shalor Eldridge, who rebuilt it and named it the Eldridge House. This version of the structure was destroyed during Quantrill's Raid, but once again Eldridge rebuilt it. The Granada Theater was originally built in 1928 as a vaudeville theater. It was renovated in 1934 as a movie theater until closing in 1989. Liberty Hall was built when the Bowersock Opera House burned down in 1911. It is a theater typically showcasing independent movies and frequent live acts. The theater was renovated again in 1993 and opened as a venue for comedy acts and live music. The building was sold and completely renovated back to its 1925 look in 2004.

Arts and culture

Lawrence is home to many bands and record labels. The Wakarusa Music and Camping Festival was a four-day-long weekend music festival held annually in early June just outside Lawrence, at Clinton State Park. KJHK 90.7 FM, the University of Kansas's student-run radio station, is a staple of the local music scene. The New Amsterdams, Kansas, Fourth of July, White Flight, The Anniversary, Minus Story, The Appleseed Cast, Old Canes, Ad Astra Per Aspera, Ghosty, The Esoteric and The Get Up Kids originated in Lawrence or its surrounding areas. The Gunn Center for the Study of Science Fiction, the first research center in the world dedicated to science fiction studies, offers courses and workshops in science fiction literature and writing. Every year since 1959, on the third Thursday of July there is the Massachusetts Street "sidewalk sale," which most businesses on Massachusetts Street offer discounts on their merchandise. In December 2005, the city announced International Dadaism Month, celebrating the early 20th century art movement. In the spirit of Dada, rather than select a typical calendar month for the occasion, Mayor Dennis "Boog" Highberger set the dates for the "Month" as February 4, March 28, April 1, July 15, August 2, August 7, August 16, August 26, September 18, September 22, October 1, October 17, and October 26, determined by rolling dice and pulling numbers out of a hat.


Lawrence is also the home of the University of Kansas (KU) athletic teams. The perennially highly ranked Kansas Jayhawks basketball team is closely followed by most residents during the winter. Massachusetts Street, the primary street of downtown Lawrence, flooded with fans in 2002, 2003, 2008, and 2012 after both KU's victories and defeats in the final rounds of the NCAA tournaments those years. The city honored the university's mascot, the Jayhawk, in 2003 when 30 statues of Jayhawks were commissioned by the Lawrence Convention and Visitors Bureau. These can be seen throughout the city as part of an art installation called "Jayhawks on Parade" The Jayhawks also field a soccer team, baseball and softball teams, track and field teams, cross country teams, and a men's club hockey team. KU also has a club rugby team, run by the KU Rugby Football club, with a clubhouse in North Johnny's Tavern. They also run the high school and the club team. They have a high school rugby team as well as a club team for high school students. The KU rugby team also runs the highSchool and club teams for high School and club students. K U's football team had their best record in their school history in the 2007-2008 season going 121 and culminating with a victory in the Orange Bowl. The university has a football team that has been in the NFL for the last 20 years. They play in the National Football Conference (NFFC) and the National Collegiate Rugby Conference (NCR).


Lawrence is run by a city commission and city manager. Commissioners consists of five individuals elected by the citizens. Three commissioner seats are up for reelection every two years. The commission elects a mayor and vice-mayor every year in April, usually the two top vote-getters. Lawrence uses plurality-at-large voting (also known as block voting) for its municipal elections, whereby voters may choose up to three candidates for office. Lawrence was the first city in Kansas to enact an ordinance (enacted in 1995, after a campaign called Simply Equal) prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. Lawrence has an active chapter of the Kansas Equality Coalition, which persuaded the city commission to approve a domestic partner registry on May 22, 2007. The registry, which took effect on August 1, 2007, provides unmarried couples both same-sex and other-sex some recognition by the city for legal purposes. Lawrence is represented federally by Republican Jake LaTurner of the 2nd and U.S. Senators Roger Marshall and Jerry Moran, both Republicans. Prior to 2002, Lawrence sat entirely within the 3rd district until reapportionment split Lawrence between the 2th and 3rd districts. In 2012, Lawrence was placed entirely withinthe 2nd district. Douglas County has supported the Democratic candidate for the past seven presidential elections. It was one of only two counties in Kansas whose majority voted for John Kerry in the 2004 presidential election, one ofonly three that voted for Barack Obama in the 2008 election and one of the onlytwo counties to vote for Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential election.

Air Quality, Water Quality, Superfund Sites & UV Index

The Air Quality index is in Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas = 57. These Air Quality index is based on annual reports from the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The number of ozone alert days is used as an indicator of air quality, as are the amounts of seven pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, and volatile organic chemicals. The Water Quality Index is 45. A measure of the quality of an area’s water supply as rated by the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The EPA has a complex method of measuring the watershed quality, using 15 indicators such as pollutants, turbidity, sediments, and toxic discharges. The Superfund Sites Index is 99. Higher is better (100=best). Based upon the number and impact of EPA Superfund pollution sites in the county, including spending on the cleanup efforts. The UV Index in Lawrence = 4.1 and is a measure of an area's exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. This is most often a combination of sunny weather, altitude, and latitude. The UV Index has been defined by the WHO ( and is uniform worldwide.


The most recent city population of 94,934 individuals with a median age of 29.3 age the population grows by 13.84% in Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas population since 2000 and are distributed over a density of 2,700 residents per square mile of area (1,000/km²). There are average 2.27 people per household in the 36,781 households with an average household income of $40,091 a year. The unemployment rate in Alabama is 5.00% of the available work force and has dropped -3.67% over the most recent 12-month period and the projected change in job supply over the next decade based on migration patterns, economic growth, and other factors will increase by 27.66%. The number of physicians in Lawrence per 100,000 population = 171.1.


The annual rainfall in Lawrence = 38.2 inches and the annual snowfall = 16.9 inches. The annual number of days with measurable precipitation (over .01 inch) = 96. The average number of days per year that are predominantly sunny = 211. 91 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily high temperature for the month of July and 20.8 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily low temperature for the month of January. The Comfort Index (higher=better) is 30, where higher values mean a more pleasant climate. The Comfort Index measure recognizes that humidity by itself isn't the problem. (Have you noticed nobody ever complains about the weather being 'cold and humid?) It's in the summertime that we notice the humidity the most, when it's hot and muggy. Our Comfort Index uses a combination of afternoon summer temperature and humidity to closely predict the effect that the humidity will have on people.

Median Home Cost

The percentage of housing units in Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas which are owned by the occupant = 45.53%. A housing unit is a house, apartment, mobile home, or room occupied as separate living quarters. The average age of homes = 26 years with median home cost = $155,920 and home appreciation of -3.97%. This is the value of the years most recent home sales data. Its important to note that this is not the average (or arithmetic mean). The median home price is the middle value when you arrange all the sales prices of homes from lowest to highest. This is a better indicator than the average, because the median is not changed as much by a few unusually high or low values. The property tax rate of $10.61 shown here is the rate per $1,000 of home value. If for simplification for example the tax rate is $14.00 and the home value is $250,000, the property tax would be $14.00 x ($250,000/1000), or $3500. This is the 'effective' tax rate.


The local school district spends $5,016 per student. There are 13.6 students for each teacher in the school, 302 students for each Librarian and 512 students for each Counselor. 4.86% of the area’s population over the age of 25 with an Associate Degree or other 2-year college degree, 27.63% with a master’s degree, Ph.D. or other advanced college degree and 20.97% with high school diplomas or high school equivalency degrees (GEDs).

  • Lawrence's population in Douglas County, Kansas of 10,862 residents in 1900 has increased 8,74-fold to 94,934 residents after 120 years, according to the official 2020 census.

    Approximately 50.25% female residents and 49.75% male residents live in Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas.

    As of 2020 in Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas are married and the remaining 57.42% are single population.

  • 20.7 minutes is the average time that residents in Lawrence require for a one-way commute to work. A long commute can have different effects on health. A Gallup poll in the US found that in terms of mental health, long haul commuters are up to 12 percent more likely to experience worry, and ten percent less likely to feel well rested. The Gallup poll also found that of people who commute 61­–90 minutes each day, a whopping one third complained of neck and back pain, compared to less than a quarter of people who only spend ten minutes getting to work.

    77.27% of the working population which commute to work alone in their car, 10.20% of the working population which commutes to work in a carpool, 1.05% of the population that commutes using mass transit, including bus, light rail, subway, and ferry. 3.30% of the population that has their home as their principal place of work.

  • Of the total residential buildings in Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas, 45.53% are owner-occupied homes, another 50.59% are rented apartments, and the remaining 3.87% are vacant.

  • The 28.32% of the population in Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas who identify themselves as belonging to a religion are distributed among the following most diverse religions.

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